Natural communities: the concept and types

natural communities - is a group of living organisms, together with the abiotic environment, located in a particular area.Its structure consists of several components that interact with each other, resulting in the nature occurs cycling of matter and energy.

The structure includes phytocoenosis ecosystem, which, as a natural animal communities, plays a major role in biogeocoenose.

What is natural communities

All living organisms in nature are interrelated, they do not live separately and are constantly interacting with each other to form a community.These complexes include living organisms as plants, bacteria, fungi and animals.

all appear natural communities are not accidental, their origin and development due to the interaction of factors of inanimate nature - the abiotic environment.Thus, each community is typical for a particular environment.

worth noting that communities of organisms are not permanent, they can move from one to the other - it depends on external and internal factors.The tra

nsition process may take hundreds or thousands of years.A prime example of such a transition can serve overgrowing lake.Over time, the body of water accumulates organic, shoal, some plants are replaced by others, and finally the lake becomes a swamp.But the process does not stop there - the swamp may be overgrown, gradually turning into the forest.Natural Community field can also go into the forest.

Types

natural communities

Natural communities come in different sizes.The biggest - a community of continents, oceans, islands.Less - Community of the desert, taiga, tundra.The smallest - the community meadows, fields, forests and others.

You can also select natural and artificial natural communities.Naturally arise from natural causes - change the species composition of organisms, climate change.These natural communities are very stable, and the transition from one to the other can take quite a long time.Examples include forest, prairie, marsh and so on. D.

Artificial natural communities are the result of the impact on the nature of human beings.They are unstable and can exist only if the person is a permanent impact on the environment: a flight, planting, watering.Only then it will remain unchanged this natural community.The field, garden, squares, parks - all these are examples of artificial groups.

Links in natural communities

each natural community has a different connection, the most important of them - food.This is the main form of interaction of living organisms with each other.Natural Community Field

The first and main link are plants, as they are used for the development of solar energy.Plants can, recycling carbon dioxide and minerals to create organic matter.

flora, in turn, feed on a variety of microorganisms, herbivores.

microorganisms and invertebrates feed on predators, they can also eat other animals.

Thus arises the food chain: plants - herbivores - predators.This primitive chain of nature is much more complicated: some animals usually feed on other predators can eat some invertebrates and plants, and so on. D.

structure of natural communities

There are four main managers who constantly interact with each other.the world natural communities

  1. solar energy and inorganic substances environment.
  2. Autotrophic organisms or plants.These include a large number of living organisms, they consume only solar energy and inorganic substances.
  3. heterotrophic organisms - animals and fungi.These organisms consume both energy and autotrophic organisms.
  4. heterotrophic organisms - worms, bacteria and fungi.The group recycles dead organic matter.Thanks to them, formed salts, minerals, water and gas - all that is necessary for living beings in the second group.

All of these units communicate with each other, resulting in nature there circulation of energy and materials.

originality of the natural community

natural animal communities

peculiarity is almost entirely dependent on the species composition of organisms living in a given territory.

name biocenosis given the predominant species.For example, if the dominant community in the natural oak takes place, we call it Dubrava, if in equal numbers grow spruce and pine, this pine or spruce-pine forest.The same applies to the fields and meadows that can be sedge, wheat and others.

man is to always remember that the natural community, or biogeocoenosis - this whole living organism, and if you disturb or change one component will change the whole system.Therefore, consuming one type of plants or animals, or holding up the territory of the Community alien species, it is possible to break all the internal processes that adversely affect the entire community.

Man permanent impact on the world around us, natural communities are modified.For example, deforestation leads to desertification of land, construction of dams - to swamping the surrounding areas.