The Aral Sea: destruction of a unique body of water

Geographical information

Aral Sea can serve as a monument to the irresponsible economic rights and a symbol of its consumer attitude towards nature.Destroy a huge water basin - this eventful history of our civilization did not know!However, first things first.The Aral Sea is draining salty sea-lake, located between the two Central Asian republics - Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan.Back in the fifties of this unique area of ​​the lake is 68 000 km2, and by 1990-mu, she declined to 36.5 thousand. Until very recently, the Aral Sea was the fourth-largest private water basins of our planet.A maximum depth of the Aral Sea was 54.5 m. In this sea-lake there are over three hundred islands, the largest of which are Barsakelmes and Renaissance.Most recently, the Aral Sea was equal to the length of 428 kilometers of, and the width is 283 km.In the past half century, the ecological situation in the Aral Sea has deteriorated dramatically.It is now split into two isolated and heavily shallowed pond called Large and Smal

l Aral.

Aral Sea

Historical background

In the middle of the geological era Cenozoic (about 20 million. Years ago), the Aral Sea has been linked to the Caspian Sea, forming with him a single water basin.An interesting fact is that at the bottom of the Aral Sea found ancient tombs, which scholars date the first millennium BC.On this basis, experts concluded that cyclical fluctuations in water level.At the bottom of this unique body of water even discovered the mausoleum, which the presumed date of the construction - about six years ago.At the beginning of the seventeenth century began another drop in the water level, so that some islands were formed, and many river artery ceased to fall into the Aral Sea.But it was quite natural environmental changes that could cause problems of the Aral Sea.It continued to be a large and affluent salty body of water with a rich ecosystem.Here, at the time it was developed quite intensive shipping.Even there Aral military imperial fleet, whose ships gunfire reminded local residents that they are subjects of the Russian crown.Also in the waters of this unique sea-lake was conducted brisk research activity.

Problems of Aral Sea

tragedy of dying sea

alarm and a harbinger of future environmental catastrophe was the construction of the Central Asian irrigation channels needed for reclamation vast cotton plantations that make up the backbone of the economy of this region.Erupted in the thirties of the last century marked the beginning of the people's enthusiasm for the tragedy of the Aral Sea.But thirty years, the salty body of water was in the relative safety of the water level it remained unchanged.Only at the beginning of the sixties was the clear outlines of the disaster.The environmental problems of the Aral Sea began in 1961, when there was a drop in the water level of twenty centimeters, and only 1963 this figure had fallen for another eighty.By the early nineties greatly reduce the area of ​​the pond, and three times increased the salinity of the water.All this is extremely negative impact on the local ecosystem.At all times, the Aral Sea fisheries flourished.On the coast, fish factory operated around the clock and cannery.Who Aral fishing virtually none.

The environmental problems of the Aral Sea

cause of the accident

Most experts see the main reason for the tragedy of the Aral Sea in the wrong distribution of water resources, the main sources of supply of this water body - the Amu Darya and Syr Darya.If they had previously supplied the Aral 60 km3 of water per year, but now the figure is five.Because of this observed global climate change in the Aral Sea.This unique sea serves as a natural regulator of the climate of the whole region.Because of the Aral Sea water masses softened the harsh Siberian air flow, lower the summer temperature to a comfortable level.Now the powerful winds blowing from the north, raised from the bottom of the exposed thousands of tons of fine dust, which consists of salt, various chemicals and toxic substances.All of this, rising into the upper atmosphere, falls as rain on the heads of unsuspecting Europeans.Thus, it is appropriate to talk about the tragedy of the Aral Sea has long gone beyond the region and acquired a global scale catastrophe.