enchants all unavailable.And what could be farther from man than the ocean floor?Marine life because unlike terrestrial beings.About them really want to find out more.The feed?How to live and be protected?So many things that really want to know.
Looking at the surface of the water, it is difficult to imagine the variety of life that is hidden at the bottom.But it is not only animals, fish and plants.The basis of the marine food chain of plankton.
What is plankton?
whole world of marine animals would cease to exist without it.Plankton - microscopic creatures that are not visible to the naked eye.Their apparatus does not allow them to move freely in the water.The position of this substance depends on the course, it they are unable to resist.
In nature, there are two kinds of plankton:
- zooplankton, which is formed from living organisms;
- phytoplankton - especially the marine plants.
Last gives the water a little green.Plankton in the water so much that in one liter of it are found millions of
Transparent antiquity, or What is interesting jellyfish
These inhabitants of the deep sea are composed of 90 percent water.And the jellyfish appeared in the world for so long that their ancestors have witnessed the life of dinosaurs.
Some of these animals are poison, which can cause burns to the skin in humans or even kill.For example, the box jellyfish is extremely dangerous.It kills a year as many people as not dying from all other inhabitants of the seas and oceans.Bite this jellyfish kills three minutes, and it moves at a speed of 2 m / s.It is difficult to escape from, and to survive the bite is almost impossible.
striking size distribution of these different types of creatures.The smallest of them the size of a pinhead, while the largest dome has a diameter of two and a half meters, and their tentacles grow up to fifty meters.
Since jellyfish mostly die after reproduction, the duration of their life is very short.Very rare specimens live in nature for more than two years.Most often, they are given only a few months.In captivity, these sea creatures can live for a long time.
Boneless Giant - Octopus
These sea creatures are very interesting for children with its unusual structure.After all, octopus tentacles instead of legs, and they have no bones.Thanks to the latter fact, this creature can easily squeeze into a tiny hole with a diameter equal to just one centimeter.
Here are some interesting facts about marine life - octopus:
- blood of these creatures is blue;
- have just three hearts;
- octopus deaf;
- they can separate any part of the body, which then grows back again;
- octopus easy to change color to adapt to the environment;
- they completely turn white with fear;
- to bring down the pursuer confused, these animals emit a cloud of ink.
Some species are extremely poisonous octopus.For example, golubokolchaty which has a size of about 3-4 cm in diameter and weighs 100 g stops its bite swallowing 5 minutes.And 30 minutes later the man gasps.And effective antidote does not exist yet.The only way to save a person is to perform artificial respiration until the poison is not to stop the action.
These inhabitants of the deep sea are mammals.While their bodies are very similar to the fish's body, they do vary widely.The main difference in the method of respiration.Marine fish breathe air dissolved in the water.Deprived of this ability cetaceans.They need to breathe air from the atmosphere.For this purpose, they are forced to float to the surface.There they inhale and breathe out.Last seen as a fountain of air with a small amount of water.
Cubs these mammals give birth in the water.Therefore, the mother immediately after birth pushes to the surface for the first breath.
biggest marine mammals are blue whales.Incidentally, they are also the largest animals on earth.Dolphin - is the smallest of the cetaceans.
Little by little about the different types of whales
Blue whales are born giants.Their length is 8 meters and they weigh about 3 tons.The biggest of the female whale that was caught, was weighing 190 tons.
Most whale species prefer seas.The exception is humpback whale , who lives near the coast.There are cases where the animals have been seen in the bays and rivers.These sea creatures love to perform acrobatic stunts.They pop out of the water and graceful dancing.
These types of whales do not have teeth.Instead, his mouth filled with horny plates called baleen.Through these mammals filtered plankton on which they feed.
sea predators such as the sperm whale , feed on fish and cephalopods.They are wonderful divers.For the squid they are able to dive to a depth of two kilometers.Looking sperm production can not breathe for about two hours.
Another predatory mammal - orca .It has established itself as a brutal killer.But the documented facts about the attack on the people there.
Amazing narwhal whale different from any other long straight tooth.Despite the menacing, they are very friendly.
most famous cetaceans - Dolphins .They are incredibly smart and quick-witted.They are easy to tame and train.By the way, they have a well-developed vocal apparatus and issue a large number of different sounds.
amazing sound names such marine life as Sunfish , needle fish, flounder and swordfish.The first of them is floating near the surface of the sea.From this it can be seen fin above the water.From a distance it looks like a shark's fin.However, it is completely harmless.
Fish needle has a unique way of hunting.She hides behind the other fish and is close to the victim.At the right moment, she immediately sucks the poor thing in your mouth.
Monkfish invented his own style of hunting.This predator shakes antenna with built-up edge, and looks like a worm.On it, the fish and "peck" and he eats them.
A flying fish invented a way to escape from enemies.She learned how to plan over the sea.This is facilitated by its well-developed side fins.
fish with eyes on one side
Flounder can have eyes only on the right or on the left side of the trunk.It depends on the species.These marine fish are unique in that their eggs do not contain fat.From this most species flounder eggs float near the surface.
These fish do not like deep water.They live mainly near the coast.Rare birds swim to a depth of more than one kilometer.
Interestingly, flounder species vary in size breath.They can be largemouth and smallmouth.The first of them - predators, the mouth of which is symmetrical and "features" on teeth sighted and the blind side of the trunk.An example of such fish are halibut and flounder-ruffs.They eat mainly worms and small fish, mollusks and crustaceans, and brittle stars.
The name arose because of the unusual xiphoid process, which is located on the upper jaw.This is not the only feature.At swordfish no scales.All this and more in the form of a sickle tail and fins, a special form, allowing it to be the fastest creature on Earth.Swordfish is able to sail for a long time with a speed of 130 km / h.
For such speeds needed space.Therefore, it can only be found in the open ocean.
fry swordfish feed on plankton.But after grow up to 2 cm, begin to hunt.Their prey becomes small fish.At the same time they began to develop as an outgrowth of the sword.Fry grow very rapidly, and within a year, its length is about 50 cm.
Predator eats everything that is encountered in her way.And the size of the production does not matter.His sword it affects sea creature.Known fact that in the stomachs of the fish caught were found pieces of shark bodies.
little about the predators living in the seas
most famous sea predators - shark .They survived the dinosaurs.Their dimensions depend on the species.The biggest of them reach 10-12 meters.Moreover, not all species of sharks are predators.There are those who feed on plankton.Sharks move very quickly because the shape of their body streamlined.Unlike fish, they lay eggs and not eggs.These eggs may be attached to the bottom or algae.Some shark species are hatching the eggs inside.Eggs hatch akulyata quite viable.
bright representatives of this family: and gray tiger shark.The first very original painted.So that resembles a tiger.It does not float away far from the coastline.Her diet is fish and crustaceans, birds and small mammals.
gray shark swims not too far out to sea.She is looking in the shallows fishes and crustaceans.Purposefully not attack people.But running in a panic person can take over the victim.
Other unusual predators - rays .Their bodies are flattened and strongly resemble the headscarf.When the ramp is at the bottom, that's fine masked.His style is reminiscent of flight navigation in the water column.Some species are poisonous stingrays.They are on the back there is a spike, which release toxic substances.A mouth they are on the belly.Moreover, it is equipped with lots of sharp teeth.
leopard seal is a formidable and dangerous predator.The name of the seal was because of the color, similar to leopard spots.It feeds on penguins and other warm-blooded Antarctic.But the leopard do not mind to pick up carrion and eat squid or fish.
Amazing information about sharks
These are just the facts.About marine life so much coming up that you need to get more accurate information.
- These creatures great recognize smells.The special place in the blood withdrawal.They feel it, even at very small concentrations.
- If the victim does not emanate the smell of blood, the shark takes its movement.To this end, it has a lateral line, which consists of cells sensitive to vibrations.
- Akulyata born with lots of teeth and can immediately start to produce their own food on their own.
- Speaking of teeth.They are mounted in sharks in the gum instead of the jaw.And form a 4 to 6 rows.Her teeth grow all his life, moving forward to replace the lost.
- pressure force of each tooth white shark is the same as if the load 3 tons crushed per 1 cm2.
- These gluttons eat everything.And in their stomachs they detect even non-edible things.But this is not the most surprising.Shark can hold food in the stomach without digesting it for several weeks.
- whole shark skeleton is composed of cartilage.It does not have any bones.
- swimming bubble in this marine life there.This feature makes the shark constantly moving, so as not to drown.
Corals are formed by small animals.While many believe that this marine plant.Coral reefs are home to many animals and plants.This is due to the calm sea inside them.In addition they have a lot of light and heat.Inside the reef is teeming with life, while on the outside it has a void and bottomless.
largest coral has a length of more than two thousand kilometers.It is located off the coast of Australia.
Submarine volcanoes often rise to the surface of the ocean.Around these craters can form coral reefs correct form.They form coral islands, which are called atolls .