This unpaired tubular body is a continuation of the larynx.The functions of the trachea, which belongs to the lower respiratory tract, it is difficult to overestimate.The name of this body in the Greek means "rough."The trachea is 9-11 cm in length.Its transverse diameter of 1.5-1.8 cm. With age, this figure may change slightly.The lumen of the hollow tube characterized by changes along its length.Before the division of the trachea to the bronchi, it is a little narrower.It should be noted that the body somewhat flattened front to back.That is why its cross-section at 1-2 mm larger than the sagittal resolution.The trachea is the minimum size and maximum expiratory - inhaling.When coughing diameter of its lumen is often reduced by 10 times, which promotes natural cleansing of the mucous membrane.The anatomy of the trachea has some nuances.For example, a person's age is less than the higher intensity of narrowing of the lumen of the trachea.This allows to explain such a widespread ph
trachea (structure and location)
The body begins at the lower edge of the six cervical vertebra and ends near the edge 5 thoracic vertebra.In children, the top of the trachea at the level of the cervical vertebrae 5 and ends about 4 vertebra of the spine.In the place of separation (bifurcation) trachea is divided into left and right bronchi.At this point, it formed the keel of the trachea (specific performance).Just above the bifurcation of the aortic arch is located, the envelope of the trachea to the left.The body is divided into a neck (1/3 length), and the breast area (2/3).The upper part of the trachea connected to the cricoid cartilage of the larynx.Ahead of this body is the brachiocephalic trunk brachiocephalic vein, part of the carotid artery.The upper part of the trachea, located in the cervical region, surrounded by the thyroid gland.Organ located behind the esophagus and laterally tested carotid artery.The chest is covered vessels trachea, sternum handle, the thymus gland.In children, this body is made of soft and thin cartilage.Every year the cartilage are sealed, and at an advanced age, they become very brittle and fragile.The walls of this body comprise incomplete rings of cartilage structure.Their number varies from 16-20.Each ring extends in 2/3 circle, and their rear ends are not connected.Thanks to them the trachea and flexible spring.Cartilage connected ring bonds.The structure includes a wall of the trachea submucosa, mucosa, connective and muscular, cartilaginous shell.The rear wall of the body has a membranous structure.It is thickened and has a specific muscle bundles which run in longitudinal and transverse direction.These beams provide the movement of the trachea when coughing and breathing.
main functions of the trachea
This organ is one of the most important in the human respiratory system.The main functions of the trachea, providing for normal breathing process, holding the air in the lung tissue, providing gas exchange.The mucous membrane is covered with cilia, which are ciliated epithelium.They carry out a movement directed towards the throat and mouth.The glands located in the mucosa secrete special mucous secretion.When injected into the trachea foreign bodies of small size this secret envelops them, and by the movement of epithelial cilia effectively brings them back to the larynx.It is based on this process such functions trachea as protecting lungs from foreign bodies and output it back into the oral cavity.In the event that the large foreign bodies a person has a cough reflex, which is characterized by a strong narrowing of the lumen, thus preventing further advancement of the trachea.This body of the inhaled air is warmed.The trachea functions as a resonator, as is involved in promoting the flow of air to the vocal cords, so it is involved in phonation.