first question from the student, read the title of this subject: "What is studying biology?".As the name implies ("bio" - life, "logos" - the doctrine), biology as a science studying the origin, structure, vital functions of living beings and their relationship with the environment and with each other.In general, the subject of "biology" - the science of nature.Biology as a science, widely studied so far, is divided into three sections.
Anthropology ("Anthropos" - people) - examines the human, its development, the origin and existence of the cultural and natural environment.Destinations in anthropology:
- philosophical - the doctrine of the essence and nature of man, which is considering the latter as a special kind of being.
- Religious - the doctrine of human nature, which develops in line with the theology and considering its origin and nature from a religious point of view.
- Physical - includes applications such disciplines as forensic anthropology and Paleoanthropology, considers man as a species in terms of its evolution, and comparisons with its closest relatives - family anthropoid primates.
- social and cultural - are sufficiently close to ethnology, engaged in comparing human society in different times and ages.
Botanica ("botane" - green) is studying plants and their livelihoods.Destinations in botany:
- Systematics of plants - plants divides into groups, sets up a system of names and finds kindred relationship between them.
- morphology of plants - studying the shape of plants for their individual and historical development.
- plant ecology - studies the relationship between plants and their habitats.
- Geography plants - studying the spread of certain species on Earth.
Zoology ("zoon" - animal) studies the representatives of the animal world.Destinations in zoology:
- Systematics animals - distributes them in systematic units: types, types, classes, families and so on. D.
- morphology of animals - examines the external and internal structure.
- Embryology animals - studies the development of germs in the body of representatives of the animal world.
- Physiology - examines the nature of life under normal and pathological conditions.
- Ethology animals - studies instincts quadrupeds and birds.
- Ecology - animal studies the interaction with the environment.
- Zoogeography - examines the distribution of animals on the Earth and its general laws.
development of biology as a science
As you can see today in the area of biology known to many.Of course, what we know today in biology, open and recognizable humanity at once.Biology as science develops over many centuries.Which opened at the beginning and that is investigated now?What the scientists were pioneers of biological phenomena?We began to study biology in ancient times and continue to today.Many biologists have made a huge contribution to the development of the science, which is now taught in schools and universities.Most of them are known and their opening are shown below.
|Hippocrates provided the first description of the structure of animals and humans, have the role of heredity and environment in causing disease.His work began to develop biology as a science.|
|Aristotle||founded taxonomy describing many animals.In his four treatises contained all known animals at the time.|
|Theophrastus described the more than 500 species of plants, gave information about the structure and reproduction of many of them, introduced many botanical terms.|
|Guy Pliny the Elder||then gathered all known information about living organisms, and has written 37 volumes of the Encyclopedia "Natural History."|
|Claudius Galen||first created a comparative anatomical description of the monkey and man, he studied the central and peripheral nervous systems.|
|Carl Linnaeus proposed a system of classification of plants and animals.|
|Carl Baer||formulated the basic provisions of the law of embryonic similarity and homologous organs.|
|Jean-Baptiste Lamarck||wrote an article about the causes and mechanisms of evolutionary transformations outlined above by the time the theory of evolution.|
|Theodor Schwann & amp;Matthias Jakob||considered the author of cell theory.|
|Charles Darwin proposed a mechanism of evolution and path of evolutionary transformation of organisms, formulated the basic tenets of the theory of evolution.|
|Louis Pasteur, Robert Koch and Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov||issued for his work as an independent science of microbiology.|
|Gregor Mendel discovered the basic laws of heredity and genetics, first began to develop as an independent science.|
And these important discoveries were made just before the end of the nineteenth century.And they have learned after the First World War, formation and collapse of the Soviet Union, what discoveries are made now?Be assured them further.