dialectical method of cognition and its occurrence in philosophy
At the time, Hegel said that if Thales has created a philosophy of nature, and Socrates - morality, Plato was the father of dialectics.He first noticed the existence of such a method of knowledge.He also introduced the concept of dialectics as a special way of knowing, as opposed to preceding it.The philosophy adopted to apply this term in two ways - as a theory of epistemology and how her method.Let us consider the latter option.Why so much attention paid to Hegel Plato, with all its metaphysical system?
very simple - it has a dialectic method of knowledge of ideas.After all Eidos both a thing (which it embodies), and is not it (it is immaterial).Aristotle, too, recognize that the dialectic of the right to exist, however, limited its scope only to the probabilistic approach, an opportunity rather than true knowledge.In Western philosophy began to talk about this method from the end of the Middle Ages.For example, Nicholas of Cusa
contribution of classical German philosophy
Few people know that classical German philosophy in its methodology is based on its traditional theology.Leibniz is the theory of monads that fold and unfold, and then it seems to us that something appears and disappears.Kant pointed out that the reason is valid, sees no contradictions (antinomies).And when they appear in the most general ideas, the mind must stop.Fichte dialectical method of cognition called antitetiki.When the "I" in its development is faced with "non-self" (nature), it overcomes this contradiction and creates the idea of "absolute self" created and then, and more.Schelling talked about a singular point of perfection, which destroyed the opposition between spirit and nature.In Hegel the dialectical contradiction and unity of being and thinking occur mainly in the minds of the Absolute Spirit, nature and society - only a faint reflection of his thought processes.
dialectics as a general philosophical method
Marx and Engels ridiculed the idea of the philosopher.Turning, in Lenin's words, her from head to foot, they have made a major dialectical method of cognition not thinking, for nature and society.From Marxism grew an entire school, including in the field of epistemology.Paradoxically, because of this dialectic comes the so-called "Soviet metaphysics."Although in the technique and it has a lot of fairly good development.For example, mention may be made Kopnina and his theory that the dialectical method of research is the unity of logic and knowledge.Continuing Engels thought that this approach leads us to ensure the unity of the spirit and of the world, the industry is studying communication epistemology of reality and the accumulation of information available to us.She also tells us that the nature of thinking and obey common, though not quite identical laws.