From expect an abundant harvest of tomatoes - a rate of one bush at least 3 kilograms, under favorable conditions, can remove more than 10.Productivity depends primarily on the variety, and then the method of cultivation and care.But you can ruin even the most prolific variety, yet compliance with agro-technical rules plays a very important role.Growing tomatoes in a greenhouse has its own quirks, for greenhouse tomatoes require completely different care than ground.If you want to try this method of cultivation of tomatoes, or already have experience, but you are looking for useful recommendations, then this article is for you.
What varieties of tomatoes are suitable for greenhouses
Tomatoes are divided into determinate varieties and indeterminate.The first - a compact form of 5-6 inflorescences, and after the central stem stops growing, it produced last flower brush. Determinant varieties considered earlier, the harvest is removed from them in a short time.Indeterminate varieties not stunted, grow and bloom all the time, respectively, and the crop as a whole give more but the fruits ripen later and not evenly.
For cultivation in greenhouses are suitable and those and others.
Also, when selecting varieties it is necessary to pay attention to his other characteristics, such as disease resistance, yield, as a well-stocked fruit, you do not tend to crack.
time of planting seedlings of tomatoes in a greenhouse
be planted seedlings in the greenhouse begin much earlier planting tomatoes in open ground.But as before - it's up to you, and each case should be considered individually.Of great importance is the region in which you are, what is the weather and, of course, what is your greenhouse.If it is a serious construction with the possibility to maintain the heat inside - is one thing, but if you call the greenhouse film covering the beds - it is quite another.In the first case, the seedlings can be planted all year round, it is technically possible to all 12 months, but in deep winter seedlings is very bad and slow growing, so it is reasonable to wait for February or March.The film teplichku planted seedlings begin in April or in early May.Before planting the plants check the night temperature in the greenhouse, it should not fall below 15-17 degrees , soil should be warm.The ideal temperature for tomatoes is 22-26 degrees, under such conditions must be landing most of the day.
Cooking Cooking ground
soil for tomatoes it is necessary, and no matter what their greenhouse you will grow.Earth begins to prepare since autumn, it make organic fertilizer, such as manure and mullein to the spring they perepreli and saturated soil nutrients, in particular nitrogen, necessary for active growth.Earth dig deep, loosen, remove weeds, roots and fertilized by two buckets per 1 m2.Above ground, you can zamulchirovat peat or sawdust, is partly to prevent the emergence of weeds in spring.Good on autumn to add wood ash in the ground.It is ground to dust, and is mixed with the soil in 1 m2 requires 1-1.5 glass ash.
for growing tomatoes in a mobile greenhouses that will be enough.If stationary greenhouse, the soil is treated more carefully .It is important not just fertilize it, and decontaminated as most greenhouse crops, including tomatoes, are dying of various diseases - fungi, viruses, bacteria, which are warm and humid environment, just multiply at lightning speed.Do not use the greenhouse soil again, if in doubt as the earth, so it is not necessary to apply it to the greenhouse cultivation.With prolonged growing tomatoes in the greenhouse every year the top layer of soil is replaced, for that remove 10-15 cm of soil, throw it, because that is where the highest concentration of disease pests.You can send the ground for processing, it is mixed with bleach and leave for a year or two.Also do not forget that after the tomatoes you can not use the land for growing other crops.
Any necessary to treat the soil with fungicides - antifungal agents, and it is desirable to affect it heat - ignited in the oven and pour boiling water - so still prepare the ground for planting.Of course, for large greenhouses prepare the soil in this way is difficult, so growers use chemical or biological means.For example, the land can be decontaminated Strait of its Bordeaux fluid, potassium permanganate or copper sulfate solution.
More and large stationary greenhouse gas can be used method of disinfection.To do this you need special sulfur checkers, they set fire in the combustion process begins to produce gases that penetrate into the soil and into all the nooks greenhouse.The gas reacts with moisture, forms sulfurous and sulfuric acid, which destroys fungal, viral, bacterial infections, snails, slugs, mites and other pests.
addition treated soil even the very greenhouse .If the gas method is not suitable, it is possible to use bleach.400-500 grams of bleaching powder dissolved in a bucket of water, insisting for several hours, and the contents of the stratified fluid is drained.It is filtered and used for spraying, whitewashing all designs in the greenhouse, as well as walls, roofs.
spring into the soil before planting the seedlings and fertilizer added.This could be rotted manure or compost - one bucket per meter.To this volume of organics added 1 tablespoon of urea and potassium sulfate.You can use any other complex mineral fertilizer at the rate of 1.5 tablespoons per m2.
Planting seedlings in the greenhouse
between the end of work on the preparation of the soil and planting the seedlings will take time.Earth must first be well watered and allowed to warm in the wet and cold soil to plant tomatoes you can not.
The beds are arranged so that the adults bushes do not interfere with each other.Too close planting a negative impact on the growth and maturation of the fruit bushes.Compact varieties planted at intervals of 35-45 cm, large - 55-65 cm, the distance between rows 60-70 cm 90-100cm respectively.
As for open ground for planting tomatoes wells dug in advance and pour water profusely.For example, if you now have formed a hole, then it is necessary to plant tomatoes in the morning or in the evening.The truth is in the greenhouse, you can schedule the event on the day, the active sun can harm delicate seedlings through the shelter.
seedlings gently removed from the container or planted directly in peat pots, the soil around the slightly compacted and mulching with peat.You can immediately put support for the garter tomatoes.A few days after planting tomatoes are not watered.They may become sluggish, but on the second day should begin to retreat.Watering is carried out when the seedlings come around, because of the pause before planting hole abundantly pour water to the ground was wet and in the deep layers.
Care tomatoes in the greenhouse
Fertilizing is required of all greenhouse crops, and especially tomatoes.Tomatoes in a greenhouse fed 4-5 times, the only way to get a good harvest.
first time tomatoes fertilized two weeks after planting .At this time, make nitrogen-containing substances such as diluted manure or urea can be used.Manure is dissolved in water and throw buckets of beds by half under a bush, urea is made at the rate of 1 tablespoon per 10 liters under a bush poured two liters of solution.
second time fertilize tomatoes 7-10 days after the first feeding.You can repeat the process, or opt for something else, for example, a solution of chicken manure.In its pure form it is not used because it is very corrosive.
third feeding occurs at the beginning of flowering of tomatoes.At this point, plants need not nitrogen and potassium, fastened to the fruit, and it is contained in the wood ash.Enough cups of ash per 1 m2.After fertilization tomatoes need to pour.
fourth time tomatoes are fed in the middle of flowering and sodium humate used in a dosage of 1 tablespoon per 10 liters - enough for 2 m2.This option may be replaced by a third feeding if there is no opportunity or desire to make wood ash.
fifth and final dressing is needed to accelerate the ripening of tomatoes.When the fruit has reached its maximum size, but in no hurry to blush, they can be treated with superphosphate.To prepare the solution for spraying take 2 tablespoons of superphosphate per 2 liters of water, insist night and add another 8 liters of water.Spray tomatoes need the evening to drop not heated and not burnt leaves, but not on the night that tomatoes do not spend the night with wet, it can lead to hypothermia and the development of disease.
10-15 days after planting the seedlings need to begin to see to it that in the bushes from growing stepchildren.If you notice their appearance, then remove immediately.It is believed that no harm to the plant can be removed stepsons to 2.5 cm, deleting larger injure tomato.But the "content" stepchildren bush spends a lot of strength and power, they weaken it, so it is necessary to remove them anyway.
in greenhouse tomatoes need moderate watering, as it keeps the humidity is always high.Abundant watering will lead to rot, rot formation.The first time the tomatoes are watered for 5-10 days after planting, guided by state and type of soil plants.Before the appearance of the ovaries tomatoes watered so that only the soil is not dried out, no more.At this time, preference is given to a rare, but abundant watering.After the formation of ovaries gradually increase watering and further watered abundantly, but as necessary.On regular watering strongly influences the humidity in the greenhouse, in a significant performance drop in 2-3 days after watering, the other high humidity is kept constant.
in greenhouse tomatoes and watered in the morning or evening, pour the water under a bush, leaves, flowers and stems are not wet.
At the time of flowering and the appearance of the ovaries reduce the humidity in the greenhouse, it is necessary to better pollination.Tomatoes are self-pollinating, but they can help - just lightly trotted bushes make it to dinner several days.
In tomato fruits have 4 stages of maturity, they can be: green, milk, brown and ripe.Tomatoes should not be left on the bush over-mature, it greatly reduces their flavor.This culture is best to remove almost fully ripe, brown, firstly, the fruits ripen perfectly themselves, and secondly it will accelerate the maturation of these, green tomato or milk.