common childhood infectious disease is measles.The features of measles in children are so specific that the diagnosis is usually not any difficulties.
The use of measles vaccine could substantially reduce the incidence among children.Recently, due to the refusal of parents to vaccinate, the situation began to deteriorate.And the lack of negative impact of the vaccine.
Normally measles affects children, but often recorded outbreaks in older age groups.A man who has not been vaccinated and without a history of measles can be infected through contact with the patient.Measles can also occur in people vaccinated in the event of a sharp decline in immunity.It does not allow the body to overcome the virus.
- As the infection spread?
- How to start a disease?
- four main symptom of measles
- Physician diagnosis and treatment
- it possible to prevent the disease?
As the infection spread?
for transmission characteristic airborne method.Coughing or sneezing, the patient is released into the en
source of infection - a sick man.He begins to pose a threat to others, starting with the last two days of the latent period.Ability to infection disappears only five days after the rash appears.
How to start a disease?
determine that the child's body has lodged a disease can not be very vigilant parent.Intrigue measles is that it is for 1 or 2 weeks of not making itself felt.The child's behavior is nothing special.It retains the usual activity.But the virus has already developed in his blood.
period from getting the virus in the body until the moment when the first alarm "signals", called the incubation.At this time there are no symptoms.
In catarrhal stage of measles seen a decrease in appetite, weakness, general discomfort, insomnia, headaches.The child may increase the temperature (up to 38-40 degrees).
specific signs of measles are hoarse voice, red eyelids, excessive tearing.There are other symptoms: discomfort of light, purulent conjunctivitis.Children complain of pain in the abdomen.The chair becomes liquid.In infants (under one year) drastically reduced weight.
four main symptom of measles
21 days after the onset of symptoms of measles occurs during basic features.Symptom No. 1 - the appearance of a grayish-white fine rash.Their size is no more domes.Notice such features is difficult, since they are localized in the oral cavity.The rash affects areas adjacent to the molars.
After five days, the symptom is supplemented by three other indicators:
- Bright merging with each other patches up to ten millimeters.They protrude above the surface of the skin.The sequence of their appearance is as follows: over the ear, forehead, face, neck, body, and limbs.
- Pink spots are beginning to increase in size.If you look at the photo of the skin of the patient, if the rash covers the body of a continuous web.
- After 3 days once again a crisis and an increase in temperature up to 40.5 degrees.
above symptoms of measles in children are standard.They note, for any of the disease.Distribution rash lasts 4-7 days.Then the color changes from red spots on the brown.The skin in these places starts to peel off (as in the photo).Two weeks later, the child's skin becomes clean.The disappearance of rashes in children occurs in the same manner as that of her appearance: 1 day recovery cleansed face in the last rash disappears from the legs and arms.
Physician diagnosis and treatment
doctor takes into account not only the symptoms that are visible to the naked eye.For accurate diagnosis of the analysis of blood and urine.Sometimes they resort to a serological test.This procedure helps to detect antibodies to the measles virus.Also, do chest X-ray.If a complication, the doctor may prescribe electroencephalography.
In modern medicine, there are no specific tools for the treatment of measles.If, during the incubation period for measles immunoglobulin is administered, it does not guarantee 100% effect.Methods used in the treatment of measles, are intended to reduce and eliminate the symptoms of the disease.
child prescribed bed rest, give antipyretics and plenty of fluids.The list of drugs for the treatment of measles - medicines relieve pain in the throat, and expectorants.In order to support the body, appointed by the vitamins.
Rhinitis treated with vasoconstrictor.Eyes were washed with warm boiled water.For this purpose are sodium bicarbonate.The nasal passages buried retinol or sulfatsil sodium.Children under 1 year old cleans his nose with a cotton swab dipped in a heated mineral oil.Patients were assigned a diet consisting of fruit juices, teas, compotes, jelly and fruit drinks.
those children who have the disease occurs without complications can be treated at home.If you develop unusual condition or child is under 1 year old, it was placed in a hospital.
Measles is usually accompanied by complications, if the age of the children more than five years.You may experience ENT diseases, disorders of the respiratory system.The infection can cause more serious conditions: encephalitis, loss of vision, polyneuritis.
it possible to prevent the disease?
Method №1 for measles - vaccination.Appointment vaccination - enter the body weakened virus.This leads to the formation of protective immunity in children.The first vaccination is carried out in one year subsequent to 6 years of age.Vaccination protects against measles for 15 years.
cases of the disease in vaccinated children-quality vaccines are extremely rare.After injection, may experience severe symptoms of the disease softly.This is the case of temperature rise, small rash, general malaise.These side effects disappear after only a couple of days.
to preserve the health of the child should not be self-diagnose and prescribe treatment.Thoughtless refusal of vaccination makes the child's body vulnerable to dangerous infection.